When the American Tobacco Company was dissolved in 1905, new independent tobacco companies arose and their advertising skyrocketed. As the anti-tobacco movement took form, smokers and tobacco companies pushed for the right to smoke and claimed smoking sections in many public spaces, a critical factor in the rise of cigarettes.
The infamous ad appeared in The New York Times and in more than 400 other newspapers on January 4, 1954. The ad announced the founding of the Tobacco Industry Research Committee, which served as a public relations front for the tobacco industry by allowing it to claim it was funding research on smoking and health.1 It marked an important turning point in the history of tobacco. It was the beginning of the industry's extensive misinformation campaign about the health effects of tobacco.[ - ]
The landmark report was the first major report on the direct link between smoking and cancer. It concluded that smoking is a cause of lung cancer and laryngeal cancer in men, a probable cause of lung cancer in women, and the most important cause of chronic bronchitis. The report was one of the first steps in a series of steps, still being taken more than 40 years later, to reduce the impact of tobacco use on the health of Americans. [ - ]
The tobacco companies played a strong role in determining what these labels would say so that they were the least effective possible. According to internal industry documents, the tobacco companies felt these labels could protect them from liability.
When these public service announcements (PSAs) aired, the smoking rate started to drop. Then, the tobacco industry preempted the decline with a "voluntary" ban on broadcast advertising, which removed the PSAs as well. Smoking rates soon began to increase again. The tobacco companies leveraged this strategic move for positive public relations value. Yet, the Fairness Doctrine is a great early example of how effective PSAs can be to help smokers quit. [-]
Philip Morris first marketed Marlboro Lights in 1971, at the time inventing the word "lights" as a descriptor for its cigarettes. Since then, the majority of cigarettes sold in the United State were designated as "light" or "ultra light". By 2000, these brands constituted 82 percent of the market share.1
This event marked the first official smokeout. Every year since then, the Great American Smokeout has helped spotlight the dangers of tobacco use and the challenges of quitting. More importantly, it has set the stage for the cultural revolution in tobacco control that has occurred over this period.[ - ]
Nicorette is now one of dozens of NRTs, which include patches, lozenges and gums, available to help tobacco users quit. Since then, the FDA has approved prescription-only NRTs including a nasal spray and an oral inhaler available under brand names like Nicotrol. The FDA has also approved prescription-only non-nicotine medications, like Chantix (varenicline tartrate) and Zyban (buproprion). They show very promising results for patients in their quit attempts by decreasing cravings and withdraw symptoms.
On April 14, 1994, after more than six hours of sharp questioning by members of the House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Health and the Environment, the seven CEOs steadfastly refused to budge under stringent questioning that they knew cigarettes were addictive. Each stated under oath that they did not believe nicotine was addictive.
In July 1997, Mississippi settled for nearly $3.6 billion. Governor Lawton Chiles, Florida's governor at the time, said the state's $11.3 billion out-of-court settlement with the tobacco industry was "the straw that broke Joe Camel's back."
It has since become one of the most rapidly and widely embraced treaties in United Nations history. The WHO FCTC was developed in response to the globalization of the tobacco epidemic and is an evidence-based treaty that reaffirms the right of all people to the highest standard of health. The Convention represents a milestone for the promotion of public health and provides new legal dimensions for international health cooperation.[ - ]
It stated that secondhand smoke exposure causes disease and premature death in children and adults who do not smoke. More specifically, that children exposed to secondhand smoke are at an increased risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), acute respiratory infections, ear problems, and more severe asthma. Smoking by parents causes respiratory symptoms and slows lung growth in their children. Among adults, exposure to secondhand smoke has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and causes coronary heart disease and lung cancer.
Once approved by the legislature, the new law established Florida's Bureau of Tobacco Prevention Program (BTPP), managed by the Florida Department of Health, to oversee the implementation of a new program.
The law has many of immediate and intermediate implications with very positive public health implications.