The Rise of Cigarettes - Pre 1950'sTobacco was a part of Native American culture and after Columbus' New World arrival, tobacco use expanded across the globe. But it wasn't until the 1880's that usage exploded after the invention of a machine that mass-produced cigarettes. [+]
Tobacco rations issued to U.S. soldiers in World War I helped establish cigarettes as a dominant product in modern consumer culture. In the 1920s, smoking among women increased as marketing efforts made smoking acceptable for women. When America entered World War II, tobacco companies again used cigarettes as a symbol of support for the military. Smoking rates were now on a dramatic climb.
Despite cigarettes vast consumer growth, criticism on the dangers never went away and starting in the 1950s, more evidence of tobacco's danger to health began to reverse smoking trends. [ - ]
Brandt AM. The cigarette century: the rise, fall, and deadly persistence of the product that defined America. New York: Basic Books, 2007.
IMAGE CREDIT: http://www.trinketsandtrash.org
Tobacco Companies Sign Frank Statement - 1954The major American tobacco companies ran this historic print ad, "A Frank Statement to Cigarette Smokers," to counteract scientific studies indicating that cigarette smoking was linked to lung cancer. [+]
1. Topics Index - A Brief History of the Council for Tobacco Research, Originally called the Tobacco Industry Research Committee Report. December 31, 1982. 21 pp. Council for Tobacco Research Bates No. CTRMN039046/9066
IMAGE CREDIT: Tobacco Industry Research Committee. A frank statement to cigarette smokers. Lorillard. Bates No. 86017454. Available at: http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/qxp91e00.
DISCLAIMER: 1954 Ad recreated the for eligibility.
First Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and
Tobacco Use - 1964On January 11, 1964, the U.S. Surgeon General of the U.S. Public Health Service, Dr. Luther L. Terry, released the first report of the Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health. [+]
The U.S. Federal Cigarette Labeling Act - 1965The U.S. Federal Cigarette Labeling Act of 1965 required warning labels to be placed on all cigarette packages. Four years later, the Public Health and Smoking Act of 1969 required that all cigarette packs contain the statement: "Warning: The Surgeon General Has Determined That Cigarette Smoking Is Dangerous To Your Health." [+]
This label appeared on cigarette packaging until October 11, 1985 when enhancements made the labels more specific. The Surgeon General issued four separate warnings that tobacco companies were required to rotate on their packaging. One mentioned lung cancer, heart disease and emphysema, and the fourth referred to the dangers of smoking during pregnancy. [ - ]
The Fairness Doctrine - 1967The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) ruled that broadcasters who carried cigarette commercials needed to give a significant amount of time to warnings on the risks of smoking. [+]
Tar Wars – 1970'sWhen the federal government began testing cigarettes for tar and nicotine in 1967, it revolutionized smoking, launching the era of "light" cigarettes. The cigarette companies began competing for a "healthier" cigarette. [+]
While these cigarettes were marketed to appeal to health concerned smokers,2 the supposed health benefits and risk reduction from smoking light cigarettes was never realized. In fact, scientific studies have shown that smoking lights or ultra lights had little or no health benefit.3
As of June 2010, as part of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, tobacco companies are no longer allowed to use words like "light" or "mild" on cigarette packages to imply that some cigarettes are safer than others. [ - ]
1. Federal Trade Commission (2000) Federal Trade Commission report to Congress for 1998. Pursuant to the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act. (Federal Trade Commission, Washington).
2. Warner KE, Slade J(1992) Low tar, high toll. Am J Public Health 82:17–18.
3. National Cancer Institute (1996) The FTC cigarette test method for determining tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields of US cigarettes: report of the NCI Expert Committee. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland) . (NIH Publication No 96-4028.).
IMAGE SOURCE: http://www.trinketsandtrash.org/
The Great American Smokeout - 1976DAYSHOURSMINUTESThe American Cancer Society created the trademarked concept for the Great American Smokeout when the California Division of the American Cancer Society successfully prompted one million people to quit smoking for a day in 1976. [+]
FDA Approves First Tobacco Cessation Aid - 1984The first nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) aid clinically proven to help smokers quit was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1984. [+]
These FDA-approved NRTs, together with evidence-based cessation counseling, can double to triple a tobacco user's chances of successfully quitting.1 While NRTs can be effective in helping smokers deal with cigarette cravings, a full strategy that may include a quit plan, coaching, quitlines and social support are shown to be increasingly more effective than using NRT alone or quitting "cold turkey." [ - ]
1. Fiore MC, Jaen CR, Baker TB, et al. Treating tobacco use and dependence: 2008 update. Clinical practice guideline. Rockville, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service; 2008. Available at http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/tobacco/treating_tobacco_use08.pdf
DISCLAIMER: Information provided on this page is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider when you have any questions regarding a medical condition.
Florida Clean Indoor Air Act - 1985The Florida Clean Indoor Air Act (FCIAA) was enacted in 1985 by the Florida Legislature. The purpose of this act is to protect people from the health hazards of secondhand smoke and to implement the Florida health initiative in section 20, Article X of the State Constitution. [+]
In November 2002, 71 percent of Florida voters approved a constitutional amendment to prohibit smoking in all enclosed indoor workplaces. The smoke-free law became effective July 1, 2003. The Florida Department of Health (DOH) and the Department of Business and Professional Regulation (DBPR) are responsible for enforcement of the FCIAA.[ - ]
Tobacco Company CEOs Testify Before Congress - 1994In 1994, United States Congressman Harry Waxman held a famous series of Congressional hearings. The presidents and CEOs of the seven largest American tobacco companies were subpoenaed to testify before Waxman's committee. [+]
Within months, a perjury investigation was initiated by the Department of Justice. Ultimately, the Department of Justice claimed it did not have enough evidence to prosecute for perjury because the CEOs testified under oath that they believed nicotine did not addict people. Because they had used the word "believe," they could not be prosecuted for perjury. [ - ]
Tobacco Settlement Agreement - 1997On August 25, 1997, Florida was the second state to settle lawsuit against the tobacco industry intended to punish cigarette makers for decades of fraud and racketeering. [+]
As part of the $11.3 billion settlement, the Tobacco Pilot Program launched a youth prevention campaign known as TRUTH and a youth movement dubbed SWAT (Students Working Against Tobacco) with a budget of $78 million. It was the country's first counter-marketing campaign funded with tobacco industry settlement money. TRUTH would later become the model for a national counter-marketing program and numerous other state-based campaigns. [ - ]
WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control - 2003The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) is the first international treaty negotiated under the auspices of WHO (World Health Organization). It was adopted by the World Health Assembly on May 21, 2003 and entered into force on Feb. 27, 2005. [+]
U.S. Surgeon General Report on Secondhand Smoke - 2006On June 27, 2006, the United Stated Surgeon General released the report, "The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General". The report concluded that many millions of Americans, both children and adults, are still exposed to secondhand smoke in their homes and workplaces despite substantial progress in tobacco control. [+]
The scientific evidence in the report indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to secondhand smoke. The report concluded that eliminating smoking in indoor spaces fully protects non-smokers from exposure to secondhand smoke, and that separating smokers from non-smokers, cleaning the air, and ventilating buildings cannot eliminate exposures to secondhand smoke exposure. [ - ]
Tobacco Free Florida Launches - 2008In November 2006, with a 71 percent majority,1 Florida's voters approved a state constitutional amendment that called for reinstating a tobacco education and use prevention program using 15 percent of the state's annual tobacco settlement – about $62 million a year. [+]
As part of this effort, the BTPP launched the Tobacco Free Florida campaign in 2008. Tobacco Free Florida's mission is to combat the pervasive problem of tobacco use in the Sunshine State, where each year, more than 28,6002 Floridians die from smoking and tobacco-related diseases cost the state an estimated $19.6 million in healthcare costs and lost productivity.3
Since then, the smoking rate for adults in Florida has decreased to the state's lowest rate (17.1 percent),4 which is below the national average and has resulted in nearly half a million fewer smokers in Florida.5 This decrease in smokers resulted in a total estimated savings of as much as $4.2 billion in personal health care expenditures.6 [ - ]
1. Florida Department of Health (FDOH). Florida Tobacco Disparities Case Study Tobacco Prevention and Control Program. n.d. Web. 8 June 2011. http://www.doh.state.fl.us/tobacco/PDF_Files/FinalCaseStudy.pdf.
2. Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. The Toll of Tobacco in Florida. Nov. 28, 2011. http://www.tobaccofreekids.org/facts_issues/toll_us/florida.
3. Penn State. "Potential Costs and Benefits of Smoking Cessation for Florida." 30 April 2010. Web. 1 March 2011. http://www.lungusa.org/stop-smoking/tobacco-control-advocacy/reports-resources/cessation-economic-benefits/reports/SmokingCessationTheEconomicBenefits.pdf.
4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010
5. 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Florida State-Level Report. http://www.doh.state.fl.us/disease_ctrl/epi/brfss/2009databook.pdf
6. RTI International. 2010 Independent Evaluation Report. January 2011. Web. 4 March 2011
Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act
- 2009On September 22, 2009, President Obama signed the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. This monumental law gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authority to regulate tobacco products [+]
A significant element of the law is that it imposes new warnings and labels on tobacco packaging and their advertisements, with the goal of discouraging minors and young adults from smoking. The Act bans flavored cigarettes with the exception of menthol, places limits on the advertising and marketing of tobacco products to minors, and requires tobacco companies to seek FDA approval for new tobacco products. The Act also bans tobacco companies from using words like "light" or "mild" on cigarette packages to imply that some cigarettes are safer than others.[ - ]
Graphic Warning Labels - 2011On June 21, 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) unveiled nine graphics, the first change to U.S. cigarette warning labels in more than 25 years. The health images will cover the top 50% of front and rear panels of cigarette packs sold in the country by fall 2012. [+]
The FDA's measures are part of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, which granted the FDA the authority to regulate advertising, marketing and production of tobacco products in the U.S. The act requires that all cigarette packages and ads carry large, visible health warnings.
In August 2011, several tobacco companies filed a lawsuit against the FDA challenging the rule. On Feb. 29, 2012, a U.S. District judge in Washington ruled that the new warning labels are unconstitutional. The Obama administration then appealed that ruling. On March 19, the 6th Circuit Court of Appeal ruled that the federal law requiring large graphic health warnings on cigarette packaging and ads does not violate free speech rights. Then on April 10, the FDA asked an appeals court to undo the lower court's ruling that said such labels were unconstitutional. The case is likely to end up in the U.S. Supreme Court.1 [ - ]
1. Baynes, Terry. "U.S. court: Tobacco health labels constitutional." Reuters. 19 March 2012. Web. 2 May 2012. < http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/03/19/tobacco-labels-idUSL1E8EJ7EP20120319>